The Second Punic War is known as Hannibalâs War or against Hannibal. The Carthaginians were led by Hannibal, one of the most gifted commanders in history, but the Romans had their own great general Scipio Africanus, and it was he who attacked Carthage on home soil, beating Hannibal and delivering final victory. The strategy of Fabius, although interrupted occasionally by zealous commanders eager for glory in their one year of office as consul, was slowly working and, relentlessly, the Romans backed Hannibal into an ever-smaller pocket so that by 207 BCE he controlled only Bruttium. After a period of hesitant peace negotiations, which may only have been offered for Scipio to gain intelligence on the enemy positions, the Roman general divided his force in two and attacked the camps of Syphax and Gisgo at night. An army of 13,500 men and corps of elephants were redirected by Carthage to Spain instead of Hannibal in Italy. This force consisted of 30,000 infantry and 3,000 cavalry, and Gisgo was almost immediately joined by the Numidian Syphax with his army of 50,000 infantry and 10,000 cavalry. Syphax would later defect to the Carthaginians, and the Roman Senate was initially against an invasion, but eventually Scipio got his backing and was ready to strike at the soft underbelly of the Carthaginian held territories in Africa, just as Hannibal was doing in southern Italy. "Second Punic War." It is said that the Romans. The Second Punic War was often known as Hannibalâs War in Rome.It was in a real sense the personal war of Hannibal. Hannibal destroys the Roman army at Cannae in the most severe defeat ever suffered by Rome. Territories During the Second Punic Warby Javierfv1212 (CC BY-SA). Please note that content linked from this page may have different licensing terms. Hannibal once again released Italian prisoners but dealt harshly with Roman captives to emphasise he was at war with only the latter and local communities were welcome to join him. The Punic Wars were arguably the most significant armed struggle in all of antiquity. September- Hannibal defeated the Gaul Volcae tribe in the Battle of Rhone Crossing. With reinforcements coming from an army led by Hasdrubal, the Carthaginians and their Numidian allies managed to muster another army of 30,000 infantry. Rather, his campaigns in Italy sought to compel Rome to recognise Carthage’s claim on its empire. The war began in 264 B.C.E. Related Content In 215 BCE Rome attacked southern Spain, dramatically defeating Hasdrubal at the battle of Ibera in 215 BCE. Most of the leadership in Carthaâ¦ Led by Mago, Hannibal’s brother, the 14,000-strong force suffered from an inability to land closer to Hannibal’s army because of Roman naval dominance and their control of the major ports. Carthage sent an army of 23,000 to the island in 213 BCE but could not prevent the city falling into the hands of Marcus Claudius Marcellus, a veteran of the First Punic War, in 212 BCE. The Carthaginian general was faced with the problem that he simply did not have the manpower to keep control of all his newly acquired territory. The Second Punic War was the second of three wars fought between Carthage and Rome, the two main powers of the western Mediterranean in the 3rd century BC. The government of Carthage was divided over their support for Hannibal in Spain and they were not really in favor of another war with Rome. Privacy While with the Carthaginians, their general/leader for the war was a military genius. The expected break-up of Rome’s hegemony and a mass Gaul uprising did not happen. The Second Punic War happened between 218 BC and 201 BC. Wherever Hannibal was not, the Romans would attack. He holds an MA in Political Philosophy and is the Publishing Director at AHE. A Roman army was then defeated in Gaul in 216 BCE, but their fortunes slowly began to improve. The War with Hannibal: The History of Rome from Its Foundation, Books... Hannibal’s War: A Military History of the Second Punic War. Scipio preferred to focus on Spain and won another victory, again against a more numerous opponent, at Ilipa in 206 BCE. Saguntum was retaken but both Roman commanders, P. Cornelius Scipio and Gn. Scipio’s cavalry wings crushed the enemy and the African infantry collapsed. Almost inevitably, Mago was unable to join forces with Hannibal and his army was defeated in Cisalpine Gaul in 203 BCE. In addition, Scipio had conquered Tunis. Ancient History Encyclopedia, 29 May 2016. Rome might have feared a land battle but they were still masters of the seas, and this meant that Hannibal could not be resupplied. Battle of Lilybaeum â A Roman fleet of 20 quinqueremes defeated a Carthaginian fleet of 35 galleys. Luckily, the Romans captured a Carthaginian ship and copied their design. The Roman and Numidian cavalry then hit Hannibal’s forces in the rear, and victory was theirs. On Sicily, the Carthaginians lost their useful ally, Syracuse. Contributions are tax deductible to the extent permitted by law. Some Rights Reserved (2009-2020) under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike license unless otherwise noted. They were then herded back in the direction of the Carthaginians to cause havoc there. For 17 years the two states struggled for supremacy, primarily in Italy and Iberia, but also on the islands of Sicily and Sardinia and, towards the end of the war, in North Africa. The theatres of war in Spain, Sicily, and Italy were now almost played out and attention turned to Africa. He had lost his power over Mediterranean Sea; losing Sicily and the compensation imposed on him by Rome greatly affected his economy. The interval between the First and Second Punic Wars (241â218 bce) The loss of naval supremacy not only deprived the Carthaginians of their predominance in the western Mediterranean but exposed their overseas empire to disintegration under renewed attacks by Rome. Campaigns of the Second Punic Warby YassineMrabet (GNU FDL). It lasted between 218 and 201 BC. The Romans insisted on Carthage giving up its entire fleet (except a paltry 10 ships), all elephants, and all Roman prisoners. After three bad losses worse was to follow for Rome in August 216 BCE when Hannibal, moving into southern Italy, won a great victory against a much larger opposing army (80,000 men) at Cannae in Apulia (modern Puglia) in the heel of the Italian peninsula. This preview shows page 33 - 34 out of 34 pages. Neither could Hasdrubal support him from Spain nor Carthage by sea. Scipio Africanus the Elderby Mark Cartwright (CC BY-NC-SA). What were the outcomes of the second Punic War? Scipio marched to meet them, and after three days of merely observing each other, the battle commenced. "Second Punic War." Carthage sent an army to Liguria in northern Italy in 205 BCE. Tribute in money if not men was extracted from local cities and new silver mines were worked. Further, Carthage could not make war without Rome’s permission, had to recognise the territories of the new Numidian king Masinissa, and pay in reparations to Rome the huge sum of 10,000 talents over the next half century. Outcomes from the Second Punic War The second Púnic war (herein after referred to as, âthe Warâ) came to a close in 201 BCE, following Scípioâs victory over Hánnibal at the battle of Záma. He invaded ever deeper inland and then besieged and conquered Saguntum (modern Sagunto, just north of Valencia), a long-time ally of Rome, in 219 BCE. Spain, the original flashpoint of the war, was now cleared of Carthaginian forces. When Scipio attacked Utica, the city proved more resilient than expected, and Carthage, meanwhile, assembled an army under Gisgo, son of Hasdrubal. In the First Punic War, to gain control of Sicily. Terms. Hamilcar Barca was recalled from Sicily and he joined Hanno the Great, who had recently made significant conquests in Libya, to quash the rebellion. His special interests include pottery, architecture, world mythology and discovering the ideas that all civilizations share in common. The Romans also took possession of southern Spain. Still, a lot was happening in the Carthage backyard, i.e. However, all the Latin colonies and central Italy remained loyal to Rome and this meant that Hannibal’s new acquisitions had to be constantly defended. The First Punic War had shown that Rome could not be defeated from the outside, but perhaps fighting in its own territory and stirring up rebellions, it might be defeated from within. While the First Punic War had been fought largely over control of Sicily, the Second Punic War involved confrontations in Spain, Italy, Sicily, Sardinia, and North Africa. Hannibal’s troops fought well, especially the veterans placed in the rear line of three, but the 80 Carthaginian war elephants were easily dealt with by Scipio, who had placed his legionaries so as to create channels which allowed the animals to pass through when they charged. Carthage would briefly rise again for a Third Punic War 50 years later but its position as a great Mediterranean power was now lost forever. Books They had long since had control of the old Phoenician colonies there, and it had already proven a rich source of silver. This was the so-called ‘Fabian policy’ after Fabius Maximus Verrucosus, the dictator of 217 BCE, who earned the nickname ‘Cunctator’ (Delayer). Hannibal’s father had made his son swear never to be a friend of Rome, and with this solid platform of wealth and arms, he did not disappoint for the commander, still only 26, would become Rome’s greatest ever foe. Both Syracuse and Tarentum defected to Carthage in 214 and 212 BCE respectively, but Hannibal was being left without support in Italy. Ancient History Encyclopedia. Rome, despite having a dangerous enemy on its doorstep, was tenacious if nothing else and rejected all offers of a peace deal. There followed another quick victory against a 4,000-strong Carthaginian cavalry force. which was for 23 years. The battle is referred to as ‘the battle of Zama’ because that town was on Hannibal’s route to the battlefield. The final outcome of the Second Punic War was the defeat of Hannibal and the conquest of Carthage. The biggest spectacle of the Second Punic War was the rise of Hannibal â¦ Contributions are tax deductible to the Romans in this War observing each other, the Romans a! 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